The volume of waste on our planet could grow by 70% by 2050, if countries do not begin to work together to solve the issue of recycling and reduce plastic consumption.
This is stated in a report on global environmental pollution, prepared by World Bank staff.
It contributes to an increase in the volume growth of world population and urbanization development.
The report’s authors point out that the most acute problem is the problem of plastic waste. Articles made of plastic can not decompose hundreds and thousands of years, which is causing serious damage to the ecosystem.
In 2016, the State disposed of only 242 million tons of plastic waste, and it is only 12% of the volume of solid waste.
Notes that countries with high income recycle about one-third of debris, while the state with the lowest standard of living processes only 4%.
In this connection it is necessary to provide financial assistance to such countries in order to be able to create a waste recycling system. Also, the World Bank Calls reduce the amount of plastic consumption and waste dumping into the sea.
Facts about plastic debris
– Approximately 10 percent of all plastics produced in the end it turns out in the ocean.
– About 8% of crude oil in the world is the production of plastic products.
– The Earth’s rotation, the wind and the currents in the oceans of the world lead to the concentration of plastic, creating the so-called garbage oceans.
– Now it is known these five oceans. Districts with whirlpools, where large accumulations of debris moving on the sea surface or just under it. Garbage oceans are in North and South Atlantic, the northern and southern part of the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. 80% of the contents of these vast layers of plastic waste is due to land-based activities, only a fifth of falls from ships or caused by some kind of sea activities.
-Mikroplastik contaminate everything from pole to pole, plastic is found even in the polar ice, and its concentration is higher than that of sea water there.
– Cigarette cigarette butts were the most common type of waste produced by a person who scored the world’s oceans. Most of the 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced annually in the world, it contains a filter based plastics made from cellulose acetate.
– As a result of ingestion of residues of polyethylene die each year about one million animals and birds.
As in Ukraine?
Did you know that EMBLAS project “Strengthening of environmental monitoring of the Black Sea,” admitted the Black Sea – one of the most polluted parts of the world?
The territory of landfills in Ukraine equal to the area of debris Danii.Pererabotka absent. There are small private companies that process only common types of waste (glass, paper, rags). The volume of processed waste does not exceed 5% of the total volume of all musora.Mnogie waste incineration plants are not ready for processing to the ever-increasing volumes of waste.
With hope for the future.
Until 2021 the EU banned a series of disposable plastic products, such as disposable tableware, Tubules for drink, cotton swabs.
The largest retailer of goods for IKEA home already waives disposableplastic goods.
Kenya became known that imposed the strictest ban on plastic bags in the world. For the use of the package, you can get a fine in the amount of 32.500 euro or a prison term of up to four years.
The organizers of the 60 British independent music festivals have already announced that they plan to get rid of disposable plastic products until 2021. In addition, a number of them have already stated that in 2018 at festivals not fed plastic straws for drinks.
By the end of 2018 650, Hilton international chain of hotels stopped using plastic tubes and bottles.
Chile became the first country in Latin America that is legally prohibited commercial use of plastic bags.
Dominica from January 1, 2019 banned the use of disposable plastic. In particular, the prohibition touches plastic straws, disposable tableware, including plates, knives and forks, and polystyrene cups and containers.
from January 1, 2021 in Moldova will ban disposable tableware made of plastic. Fall under the prohibition of plastic plates, cups, spoons, forks and chopsticks.
Meanwhile, in Sweden ended debris.
More recently, the world shaken by news that the debris ended in Sweden and the authorities are ready to import it for recycling to other countries.
Sweden – one of the most environmentally friendly countries. According to the Swedish Waste Management AssociationAvfall SverigeNow Sweden order or otherwise disposes of more than 99% of household waste. Only less than 1% of all waste goes to landfills.
However, it was not always. Until 1975, the Swedes disposed of only 38% of waste. New program measures helped Sweden achieve significant progress in waste management. However, and now the Swedes are not completely satisfied with the results. Some of the measures entail negative consequences for the environment.
The benefits of garbage
50% of household waste in Sweden is burned to produce heat and energy. So 20% of electricity and heat in the country provide incinerators.
The amount of pollutants in the ash which remains from the incineration of household waste is reduced by 50%. Moreover, ash is sieved to separate it from the gravel, which is used in road construction.
In the smoke incinerators contains only 1% of harmful emissions. All the smoke is filtered through a dry filter and water. The water is purified to drinking and mud from her fill abandoned mines.
99% of the filtered smoke so – it is non-toxic carbon dioxide and water vapor. But even this is not a perfect indicator for the Swedes. Once in the atmosphere, carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas, causing adverse climate change.
So the best option for disposing of garbage – a recycling and reuse. As explained in Avfall Sverige, recycling must bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits and combustion and the production of the new from the ground up is more expensive than recycling.
Now Sweden is recycled 48% of household waste. For example, the fibers contained in the paper is reduced to 7 times. For the production of recycled paper consumes half as much energy than is needed for the production of paper directly from the timber. Moreover, the reuse of paper saves forests over large areas.
Plastic is recycled and used to produce new things as well to 7 times. After that, it is burnt, and he is again beneficial.
Organic waste is sent to the compost. Of them also receive biogas, which is used as a fuel for transport.
garbage processing has opened up new business opportunities. In particular, there were enterprises producing artificial football turf of old tires, environmental blades for cleaning after pets – from newspapers, someone is selling lead from batteries and the like.
A properly functioning waste management system has enabled Sweden to import waste from neighboring countries. According tosvenska DagbladetFor 1 ton of garbage incinerators are $ 43. In 2014, Sweden took over 2.3 million tons of garbage from Norway, Ireland and the UK. So, in addition to raw materials for heat and power generation, Sweden made a profit of almost $ 100 million.
However, the Swedes, and here note the negative effects on the environment due to the emission of CO2from combustion and transportation of debris.
What do manufacturers and ordinary citizens
Incineration plants and processing plants have been incapacitated, if citizens are not treated responsibly to sorting.
In the yards are from 7 to 9 different containers for sorting garbage: paper, paper and cardboard packages, plastic, metal, uncolored glass, colored glass, organic waste, broken instruments, textiles and sometimes to waste, not falling into any of the categories . It also placed 2 small drawers for light bulbs and batteries.
But no one does not clutter the room 9th buckets: usually cost two and bottles and cartons are brought separately. In addition, plastic bottles and aluminum cans can be put into machines in supermarkets and get 1 or 2 crowns (USD 3,126,24) for a small or a large container.
Sorting garbage thoroughly. If a thing is made up of different materials, they are discarded separately. So, from the glass bottles have to tear off the paper label and throw in different containers.
Pharmacies take medicines with expired shelf life, used syringes, thermometers, etc. outside.
In some cities in Sweden are also installed underground marshalling yards. On the surface – only ventilation shaft pipe and urns. Underground pipes are to the central chamber. When the boxes are filled, debris is sucked into the central container under a high air pressure, simultaneously extruding. When the filled container center, the control room receives a signal arrives machine and replace the container.
Bulky waste – household appliances, furniture, construction materials – free pass to a designated collection point, located in the relative affordability. There they were dismantled into parts and sold to manufacturers. Many gas stations are located ekostantsii taking citizens varnishes, paints, spray cans, chemicals and light. Disposal of hazardous substances involved in recycling plant of household chemical goods.
Sweden makes the most of e-waste from all EU countries. Since 2014 all retailers in the country are required to take the broken equipment, and outdated technology for processing. You can buy a new phone or a computer at a lower price, to exchange for the old one.
Swedes to teach conscious sorting helped penalty system, advocacy, active social advertising, lessons in kindergartens and schools.
It may seem that sort – the main event in the process of reducing the amount of waste in Sweden. But it is not so. Of equal importance is to reuse things, fix broken appliances, furniture or clothing and conscious use.
In particular, the Swedes are encouraged to repair home appliances, shoes, bicycles, reducing the profit tax in the amount of half the cost of services. For example, if the cost of repairing a washing machine – CZK 100, this month the tax list on 50 crowns less.
Some Swedish companies take old clothes and old clothes in exchange for a discount when you buy in their store (eg, H & M and IKEA).
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with public and private corporations have developed a system of financial incentives manufacturers use a less toxic raw materials and produce products and products with a longer service life. Manufacturers are responsible for the disposal of packaging and products with expired service life. Therefore they are interested to develop products that are easier recyclable and contain fewer substances that are harmful to the environment.
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